Investigators have released information on the weapons carried by the gunman who opened fire at a Florida video game tournament this weekend, killing two and leaving another nine victims with bullet wounds: He was armed with two handguns, a 9mm and a .45 caliber, both recently purchased from a licensed dealer.
The fact that the assailant wielded a common semiautomatic pistol, the staple of the contemporary American firearms market, would seem to make this most recent gun rampage an outlier among the mass shootings that have elicited opposition to the assault-style rifles that have become closely associated with such attacks. But the numbers show that it instead makes the carnage at Jacksonville Landing routine.
The Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT) Center at Texas State University has studied active-shooter rampages for reports commissioned by the FBI. The FBI defines an active shooter as someone who kills or attempts to kill people in a confined or populated area. “Active shooter” is a more expansive category than mass shooting, which applies only to incidents that result in a minimum number of casualties. The term “active shooter” can apply to more targeted attacks as well as unsuccessful attempted mass shootings.
According to data compiled on 200 such attacks from 2000 through 2015, the ALERTT team found that pistols, not rifles, were the primary weapon used by the majority of active shooters:
Pistols were the most common weapon regardless of whether active shooters struck schools, businesses or churches. The perpetrator of one of the deadliest mass shootings in history, the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre, was equipped solely with pistols.
Semiautomatic handguns like a Glock or a Smith & Wesson M&P Shield both fire a round and load a fresh bullet with each pull of the trigger, just like typical civilian-model AR-15 rifles. That mechanism allows a user with a quick trigger finger to discharge rounds with great speed. These handguns are fed ammunition from detachable magazines, which can be reloaded almost instantly. Like assault rifles, nearly every caliber of handgun can be fitted with an extended magazine that holds 30 or more rounds of ammunition.
What separates a rifle from a pistol is the power of the ammunition each gun fires. A rifle’s bullet is propelled at a far greater speed and carries more force. Rifles are also more accurate over long distances, whereas a pistol round is only accurate at close range.
But in a confined indoor setting like the gaming tournament in Jacksonville, those factors may not matter as much as the ability to quickly fire and reload. An audio recording from the scene suggests the shooting lasted less than 30 seconds.